Quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing are other ways to show the conversation
In addition to in-text citations, writers summarize, paraphrase, or quote sources. Writers use clues to indicate to their reader that something is not their (the author’s) own idea – the presence or absence of quotation marks and in-text citations.
When the reader sees:
Citation AND Quotation Marks
This means that this is someone else’s information in that person’s exact words.
For example, this sentence from Myrick’s article states
Research on general motivations for media use also points to procrastination as a reason why individuals watch entertainment media. To procrastinate is to “voluntarily delay an intended course of action despite expecting to be worse off for the delay” (p. 66, Steel, 2007).
Citation AND NO Quotation Marks
This scholarly article demonstrates how:
NO Citation +NO Quotation Marks
When someone sees no in-text citation and no quotation marks, they assume that the words are those of the author, not the work of anyone else.
For example, in many conclusions or discussions in a scholarly article, you won’t see citations, because the author is reporting on their own part of the scholarly conversation.
This study found that cat-related content is a popular form of online media with the potential to improve users’ moods or to delay more important tasks. The results of this survey provide valuable insights as to why Internet users so frequently view online cat-related content, which users are more likely to enjoy such content, what emotional benefits and drawbacks are associated with this viewing, and the relationship between procrastination, guilt, and happiness in impacting enjoyment of entertainment media.
Myrick, Jessica Gall. “Emotion Regulation, Procrastination, and Watching Cat Videos Online: Who Watches Internet Cats, Why, and to What Effect?” Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 52, no. C, 2015, pp. 168–176. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.06.001
restatement of a text, passage or work giving meaning in another form (Merriam Webster (Links to an external site.))
restating a larger work, rather than a passage, giving meaning in another form.