very primitive spore type, formed by the breaking up or disarticulation of fungal mycelia


is the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream.

Biohazardous waste

also called infectious waste or biomedical waste, is any waste containing infectious materials or potentially infectious substances such as blood.


the application of safety precautions that reduce a laboratorian's risk of exposure to a potentially infectious microbe and limit contamination of the work environment and, ultimately, the community.


Umbrella term for bacteria that has originated from the GI tract. This is most commonly E. coli.

colony-forming unit (CFU)

a bacterial cell or cluster of cells that give rise to a colony on a plate.

contagious mastitis

Contagious mastitis is the “cow-associated” form where infected cows are the reservoirs for bacteria and spread occurs cow to cow at milking time


inflammation of the urinary bladder.


large family of Gram-negative bacteria that includes E. coli.

environmental mastitis

Mastitis pathogens that are found outside the milking parlour. Environmental organisms are found in bedding, soil, walkways, on pasture or any surface with which the cow or her manure comes in contact.

gradual metamorphosis

This is a type of development in which the immature stage (nymph) is a smaller version of the adult.

Heinz body

an erythrocyte inclusion from denatured hemoglobin


the presence of blood in urine.


capable of living solely on or in one species of host.


An immature erythrocyte just prior to development to a polychromatophil. This stage still has a nucleus. Also known as a nucleated red blood cell.

new methylene blue stain

is a supervital stain that is used in veterinary medicine to stain residual ribosomal RNA (reticulin) or Heinz bodies


means frequent, abnormal urination during the day.


an object or organism that resembles or is mistaken for a parasite.


Upper urinary tract infection that often involves the kidneys.


an abnormal increase in WBCs in the urine.


or "quest", is the act of a tick seeking out a blood meal.


an incidental finding. An example of a spurious parasite is finding rabbit coccidia in a dog fecal exam.


characterized by painful, frequent urination of small volumes that are expelled slowly only by straining and despite a severe sense of urgency, usually with the residual feeling of incomplete emptying.

Tamm Horsfall Mucoprotein

Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) is exclusively produced by renal tubular cells of the distal loop of Henle and is the most abundant urinary protein in mammals.


(of a liquid) cloudy, opaque, or thick with suspended matter.

Urine Specific Gravity

laboratory test that shows the concentration of all chemical particles in the urine.


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Clinical Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Copyright © 2021 by Erin Burton is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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